Syria History: Earliest to Present

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History of Syria: Prehistoric , Ancient, Roman and Byzantine, Islamic, Ottoman and Modern Syria


Syria is a country with a rich and complex history, dating back to the earliest days of human civilization.

Located at the crossroads of Asia, Europe, and Africa, Syria has been at the center of many significant events in history, including wars, invasions, and the rise and fall of empires.

In this blog, we will explore the history of Syria, from its earliest days to the present.

Prehistoric Syria

The area now known as Syria has been inhabited by humans for tens of thousands of years.

Archaeological evidence suggests that humans were living in the region as far back as 700,000 years ago.

Stone tools and other artifacts from this time have been found in various parts of Syria.

Ancient Syria

The first recorded civilization in Syria was that of the Sumerians, who established a city-state in the region around 4000 BCE.

The Sumerians were followed by the Akkadians, who established a powerful empire that extended from Syriaa to Iran.

In the 14th century BCE, the Hittites, a group of people from what is now Turkey, conquered Syria and established their own empire.

They were eventually conquered by the Assyrians, who were in turn conquered by the Babylonians.

In the 6th century BCE, the Persians conquered Syria’s and made it part of their empire.

It remained under Persian control until the 4th century BCE when Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army invaded and took control of the region.

Roman and Byzantine Syria

After the death of Alexander the Great, Syria became part of the Seleucid Empire. In the 1st century BCE, the region was conquered by the Roman Empire, and it became part of the Roman province of Syriia.

During this time, the city of Damascus became an important cultural and economic center.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century CE, Syriia came under the control of the Byzantine Empire.

During this time, the region was heavily influenced by Christianity, and many important Christian figures, such as Saint Paul and Saint John, lived and worked in Syriia.

Islamic Syria

In the 7th century CE, the Muslim Arab armies, led by the Prophet Muhammad’s companion Khalid ibn al-Walid, conquered Syriia, marking the beginning of the

Islamic era in the region. Damascus became the capital of the new Islamic empire, and the Umayyad Caliphate was established.

During the Islamic era, Syriia became an important center of learning and culture, with many important figures in Islamic history hailing from the region.

The city of Aleppo became an important commercial center, while the city of Hama became known for its textiles.

Ottoman Syria

In the 16th century CE, the Ottoman Empire conquered Syria and made it a province of the empire.

During the Ottoman era, Syriia remained an important center of trade and commerce, with the cities of Damascus and Aleppo becoming important centers of handicrafts.

Modern Syria

Following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, Syriia became a French mandate.

It gained independence in 1946 and has since gone through many political changes, including a period of union with Egypt in the 1950s and 1960s and a period of Baathist rule in the 1970s and 1980s.

In the early 21st century, Syria has been the site of a devastating civil war, which has resulted in the displacement of millions of people and the destruction of many historic sites and cultural treasures.


The history of Syria is a long and complex one, spanning many millennia and involving the rise and fall of empires and the movement of people and ideas across the region.

Despite the many challenges that Syria has faced throughout its history, it has remained an important center of culture and learning, with a rich and diverse heritage that continues to inspire and influence people around the world.

From the earliest days of human civilization to the present, Syria has been at the center of many significant events in history, and its story is one of resilience, perseverance, and a deep commitment to the preservation of its unique cultural identity.

As the country continues to face new challenges and opportunities in the 21st century, it is important that we continue to appreciate and celebrate its rich history and cultural heritage, and work together to ensure that it remains a vibrant and thriving part of the global community.

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